This chapter teaches the fundamentals of Thai grammar. Literal translations help give you an intuitive sense of how the language is constructed. Chapter 12 is also highly effective for learning tone pronunciation. This is a sizeble chapter (prints 62 pages), with substance. Chapter 12 is recommended for all students, from beginners to advanced.
Strictly speaking, the Thai language does not have verb tenses. Verbs do not change their form. An adverb of time can be added to show when something happens. Verb tense is also expressed by using time markers, special words that indicate the time at which an action occurs.
She went yesterday.
เขา ไป เมื่อ วาน นี้
Kŏw pbai mûea-wahn-née.
Wfw: She go yesterday.
* Although the word "pbai ไป" is a verb in the present tense, the addition of the word mûea-wahn-née shows that the action occured in the past.
| An action that occurred in the past can also be expressed by
adding the time marker "láeo" (แล้ว) to the end of the sentence. Láeo
can be translated as "already."
We went to Laos.
เรา ไป ประเทศ ลาว แล้ว
Row pbai pbrà-têt laao láeo.
Wfw: We go country Laos already.
| Mâi dâi before a verb also indicates that the action has
already occurred. Mâi dâi can be translated as "did not."
We didn’t go to Laos.
เรา ไม่ ได้ ไป ประเทศ ลาว
Row mâi dâi pbai pbrà-têt laao.
Wfw: We not did go country Laos.